How is hepatitis
B transmitted among Asians and Pacific
Reusing needles for injection or
tattoos, and unprotected sex, many
APIs become infected when they are
infants or young children. Frequently,
transmission of the hepatitis B virus
occurs during the birthing process
when the virus is passed on from the
mother (who is often unaware that she
is a carrier and has chronic hepatitis
B) to her child. It can also be
transmitted during early childhood
through direct contact with blood of
infected individuals, occurring from
contact between open wounds, sharing
contaminated toothbrushes or razors,
or through contaminated medical/dental
hepatitis B often not diagnosed?
The danger of
hepatitis B lies in its silent
transmission and progression. Many
chronic hepatitis B carriers have no
symptoms and feel healthy. Carriers
may exhibit normal blood tests for
liver function and be granted a clean
bill of health. The diagnosis of
cannot be made unless the doctor
orders a specific blood test that
tests for the presence of the
hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), a
marker for chronic infection. Since
the detection of hepatitis B is so
easily missed, even by doctors, it is
up to the patient to specifically
request the HBsAg test. Early
detection not only benefits the
carrier, but will also prevent the
infection from being passed silently
from one child to another, and from
one generation to another.
hepatitis B life-threatening?
appropriate management and screening,
one in four hepatitis B carriers (25%)
dies from liver cancer or cirrhosis
(liver damage leading to scarring and
eventually death from liver failure).
Some develop cancer as early as 30
years of age. Every year,
approximately one million people
worldwide die from the disease
because they are diagnosed past the
point where current treatment can be
effective. Because so many carriers
feel perfectly healthy even with early
liver cancer, the disease can progress
without the carrier even knowing. When
symptoms do appear, it is often only
at the late stages of their disease.
All chronic hepatitis B carriers,
whether they feel healthy or sick, are
at risk for developing liver cancer or
cirrhosis. Finding the cancer when it
is small by regular screening remains
the best chance of surviving liver
Hepatitis B is
one of the largest health threats for
Asians. Thus it is important for all
APIs to be checked for hepatitis B and
vaccinated if not previously exposed.
Because hepatitis B is the major cause
of liver cancer, the hepatitis B
vaccine, which prevents hepatitis B
infection, is also regarded as "the
first anti-cancer vaccine."
In addition to
this big health problem another
dangerous virus hepatitis C has made
the touble worse.The prevalence of
anti HCV as a marker of hepatitis C
virus infection (HCV) is also high and
is not to much far behind HBV which is
about 2.0%-3.5%.Unlike HBsAg, the
prevalence of anti HCV is almost
similar in any area in Indonesia. It
is estimated that there are about 5 to
7.5 million people are suffering from
HCV infection at present. It is very
unfortunate that effort to make
vaccine for hepatitis C is still not
successful, so that attemt to reduced
the transmission still laid on health
education.to the public.
people who are infected with the hep C
virus go on to develop chronic hep C.
The infection becomes chronic
(long-lasting) because the body’s
immune system is unable to fight it
off. You might think that such a
condition would make you feel sicker
and sicker over time. However, for
many people, hep C is an asymptomatic
condition—which means they may not
experience symptoms for many years
after they are infected. No one can
tell you now whether or not you will
have symptoms in the future.
tricky part: a lack of symptoms does
not mean that hep C stops attacking
The virus can
stay active in the body without
producing recognizable symptoms. In
fact, some people experience no
symptoms that they are aware of until
significant liver damage has
The hep C virus attacks liver cells
and uses them as a host to reproduce
itself. When the body attempts to
fight the virus, it sends
(a type of
white blood cell) to the liver, which
This inflammation is a normal
response to infection, but over time
this process, and certain chemicals
released by the lymphocytes, can
damage liver cells.
When the liver cells are damaged,
they cannot function well and may
die. Some of these cells may grow
back, but severe injury may lead to
fibrosis (a buildup of scar tissue on
the liver). Fibrosis slows down the
liver's ability to circulate blood
and remove toxins.
Treatment may help prevent further
damage or reduce progression of the
condition. However, the longer
treatment is delayed, the more likely
significant and permanent liver
damage will occur.
Over time, hardened scar tissue can
replace large amounts of normal liver
tissue. This condition, called
cirrhosis, seriously impairs the
liver's ability to function. As a
result, blood that cannot pass freely
through the liver may back up into
the spleen, and this may lead to the
destruction of healthy blood cells.
In addition, the liver may not be
able to produce enough bile to aid in
the handling of nutrients, such as
vitamins A, D, E, and K, and most
fats. If the liver is damaged, there
are some important steps that canbe
taken to keep the undamaged cells as
healthy as possible.
To carry out an
outstanding clinical care of patients
with liver disease.
To improve the quality of health and
medical care of patients with liver
diseases and it’s related diseases.
To treat and to cure patients
suffering from viral hepatitis,
especially those infected with
hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus.
To prevent those chronic hepatitis
to become liver cirrhosis.
To prevent those liver cirrhosis to
become liver cancer.
To prevent and treat complications
from liver cirrhosis
Prevent from being
prevent individual or public from
being infected by the virus and
eventually suffering from liver
individual and community from being
infected by HBV and HCV infection
To carry on clinical
researchs in acute and chronic liver
basic researschs related to the
existing evidence based problems.
Hepatitis A, B vaccine.
Clinical research interests:
and management of chronic hepatitis,
especially that resulting from
infection with the hepatitis B and C
Diagnosis and treatment of hepatic
Acute liver failure, alcoholic liver
Drug-induced toxicity including
TPN-related liver disease.
Fatty liver disease, Wilson’s and
other genetic liver diseases.
Complications of chronic liver
disease including ascites and
Development of hepatocellular
Conduct health education of
To conduct health
education on many aspects of liver
diseases for patients and communities.
knowledge on liver disease to
population and community.
To make public aware
of the danger of HBV and HCV.